In July 1951, President Truman signed Public Law 78 (which did not include sanctions against employers). Shortly after it was signed, U.S. negotiators met with Mexican government officials to prepare a new bilateral agreement. This agreement made the U.S. government the guarantor of the contract, not the American employer. The Braceros could not be used as replacement workers for American WORKERs at STREIKende; The Braceros, however, could not strike or renegotiate wages. The agreement provides that all negotiations will be conducted between the two governments.  The Bracero program was launched by an executive order of President Roosevelt in July 1942 and officially launched on August 4, 1942, when representatives of the United States and Mexico signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement. Although the program lasted only until the end of the war, it was extended in 1951 by the Migrant Labor Agreement and did not end until the end of 1964. During the 22 years of the program, U.S. employers provided jobs to nearly 5 million Braceros in 24 states. The Bracero program (from the Spanish term bracero, what “manual worker” or “one who works with his arms”) was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements that were launched on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Agricultural Laboratory Agreement with Mexico.  For these agricultural workers, the agreement guaranteed decent living conditions (sanitary, decent housing and food) and a minimum wage of 30 cents per hour, as well as protection against forced defence and guaranteed a portion of wages in a private savings account in Mexico; it also authorized the importation of contract workers from Guam as a temporary measure in the early stages of the Second World War.
 In addition, in 1951, the Truman Migratory Commission revealed that the presence of Mexican workers was depressing the incomes of American peasants, although the US State Department insisted on a new Bracero program to counter the popularity of communism in Mexico. In addition, it was seen as a way for Mexico to participate in allied forces. The first Braceros were authorized on September 27, 1942 for the sugar beet season. From 1948 to 1964, the United States allowed an average of 200,000 Braceros per year.  During its 40-year history, the Bracero program has been besieged by accusations by civil and agricultural rights activists such as Cesar Chavez that many Braceros have been subjected to gross abuse by their American employers, sometimes bordering on slavery. More than 4.6 million contracts were awarded during the 22-year Bracero program. Although Congress ended the program in 1964, it set the stage for decades of labour disputes and a dynamic of migrant workers that still exists today.